Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 2 by Jesse P. Greenstein and Alexander Haddow

By Jesse P. Greenstein and Alexander Haddow

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B. Nitrogen Mustards, Epoxides, Ethyleneimines and Mesyloxy Corn pounds. Fruton et al. (1946) found that HN2 reacted with one-quarter and one-third of the amino groups (Van Slyke nitrogen) of egg albumin and 38 PETER ALEXANDER gelatin respectively and a 45% decrease in amino nitrogen (Van Slyke) was observed by Alexander and Fox (1953a) (seeqTab1e;IV) for serum albumin. An isolated experiment with the aromatic nitrogen mustard derived from p-methoxyaniline with wool indicated limited reaction with amino groups (see Table IV).

The shift in the isoelectric point of egg albumin from pH 5 to 8 on treatment with propylene oxide noted by Fraenkel-Conrat (1944) could result from the blocking of approximately 10 % of the carboxyl groups and could also have been brought about by the quaternization of the imidazole group of histidine, which was shown to occur with mustard gas (Davies and Ross, 1947) ; it does not therefore provide confirmatory evidence for extensive reaction with the carboxyl groups. The limited amount of valid data indicates that epoxides in general do not react extensively with carboxyl groups of proteins near their isoelectric point except for epichlorhydrin, which can react with up to 40% of the carboxyl groups in wool.

8). This possibility will be considered in more detail on p. 31. Physical evidence concerning the rigidity of DNA molecules is conflicting. , decrease in net charge) coils up; a similar conclusion was also reached by Alexander and Hitch (1952). On the other hand, birefringence studies (Schwander and Cerf, 1951) and measurements of the rotary diffusion coefficient (Benoit, 1950, 1951) do not appear to be compatible with the view that a DNA molecule can coil up. If the molecule is rigid, then the decrease in viscosity may be due to reaction by the mustards with the groups which are responsible for forming the intermolecular bonds which leads to the network structure responsible for non-Newtonian behavior.

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