By means of studying and evaluating agricultural guidelines in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam, this examine is helping fill an important hole in improvement learn. The record offers an review of conceptual and dimension concerns regarding the results of alternate and domestic-support regulations and coverage reforms at the incentives of agricultural manufacturers and provides empirical estimates of the measure of security or disprotection within the 4 international locations. From India's countercyclical coverage results and Indonesia's excessive degrees of agricultural security, to the craze towards modest help of agriculture in China and Vietnam, the report's effects display either how alterations in agricultural coverage can enhance farmers' incentives as monetary progress happens and the way tough it really is to reform entrenched coverage interventions. via such findings, the file contributes to coverage discussions on developing propoor guidelines on the topic of agricultural aid and alternate, either on the household point and in foreign negotiations.
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Additional info for Agricultural Producer Support Estimates for Developing Countries: Measurement Issues and Evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam
The first one occurred in 1995, when China abruptly increased its grain imports and cut off maize exports owing to concerns about domestic grain shortages and rising prices. The spike in China’s imports helped push world grain prices near historical highs. Subsequently several consecutive years of good weather combined with changes in domestic agricultural policy to boost China’s grain production, and this caused imports to fall. In crop year 1996/97, wheat imports fell by nearly 10 million tons, representing roughly 10 percent of average annual world wheat trade (USDA-ERS 2005).
Not ranked. a nes, not elsewhere specified. 13 Exports of major agricultural commodities by Vietnam, 2003 Rank in Vietnam exports 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank in world exports Producta Quantity (metric tons) Value (thousands of $) Unit value ($) 3 3 4 2 1 8 2 6 3 — Milled paddy rice Coffee, green Rubber, natural, dry Cashew nuts, shelled Pepper Tea Cassava, dried Groundnuts, shelled Fruit, fresh nes Food, prepared nes 3,813,000 749,200 345,000 83,900 74,100 59,800 632,006 82,700 96,359 56,579 727,000 330,000 265,000 260,000 127,680 70,000 52,795 52,000 45,781 41,873 191 440 768 3,099 1,723 1,171 84 629 475 740 Source: FAO (2006).
In the 1990s a program of private shareholding and greater market orientation went into effect that increased the capitalization of the economy. However, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) continued to dominate several key industries in China’s “socialist market economy,” including the automotive, pharmaceutical, electronics, and petrochemical industries (Nolan 2002). Despite its progress, China’s economy also suffers from a series of social and economic problems, including income disparities, unemployment, excessive bureaucracy and corruption, and environmental deterioration.