By David W. Rhind, D. W. Rhind, D. R. F. Taylor
Making maps dates again at the least 4 thousand years and it's largely recognized that many maps are of significant ancient price and current a talented approach to summarising the genuine global on a sheet of paper. much less renowned is the judgement inquisitive about the choice and simplification of positive factors, the advanced transformation of house and the exacting criteria that are wanted in cartography. This booklet is basically a tribute to Professor F.J. Ormeling, former President and Secretary/Treasurer of the ICA and provides a breathtaking assessment of the present prestige of cartography, how this prestige was once attained and how within which the topic is anticipated to conform over the following decade. it truly is composed of 2 major sections. within the first, the current kingdom of cartography in numerous nations is tested. the second one part is a thematic view within which a few of the significant concerns and advancements in cartography are mentioned in flip, together with paintings and technological know-how in cartography, the nature of historic cartography, the position of map making in constructing international locations, the influence of a potential excellent desktop mapping facility and the way cartography has replaced lately
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Elementary cartography Map reading, Map Practical inteφretation & data geography presentation Practical — geography in Africa Cartography Mapwork & analytical geography Practical Practical geography geography Practical geography Map reading Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) — Port Harcourt — NigeriaPractical geography Nsukka Ahmadu Bello — Sokoto Maiduguri Parti NR Elements of cartography Cartography Cartography Map construction & air photography Cartography Map reading & — — Practical geography NR "Not taught due to lack of lecturers.
Remote sensing instruments, such as multi-spectral scanners on space platforms, provide unstructured data either in the form of digital tapes or images. Remotely sensed data may also be acquired from infra-red (black and white or colour) cameras, thermal infra-red scanners, multiband cameras, multi-spectral scanners, microwave radiometers and radar carried on aircraft. These data can be read, enhanced, geometrically corrected and then stored unstructured in the data base. As imagery in digital form with higher resolution (like that from the SPOT satellite, for example) becomes available, digital remotely sensed mapping will become quite helpful for selected themes in small scale topographical mapping.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, maps were produced in one colour - black - with topographical features shown by bachures. Cartography grew as an adjunct of this mapping. In 1905, a high powered committee set up by the Government of India recommended that the primary map scale of 1 inch to a mile (1:63,360) be adopted for the whole country, with depiction of topographical features by contours, and that the maps be printed in multiple colours. The revision cycle was fixed at 25 years. The Revenue (cadastral) surveys and mapping were uncoupled from the Survey of India and became the responsibility of the provinces (now states) on the recommendation of the same committee.