Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics by A. Ray Hilton

By A. Ray Hilton

State-of-the-art innovations for yielding top quality chalcogenide glasses This pioneering paintings describes the expertise, built over a 50-year interval, to make use of chalcogenide glasses as infrared optical fabrics. equipment for qualitatively picking chalcogenide glass compositions and generating high-purity homogeneous glass are mentioned. Chalcogenide Glasses for Infrared Optics contains distinct construction concepts constructed throughout the author's paintings at either Texas tools (TI) and Amorphous fabrics, Inc. (AMI). The construction of vacuum drift zoned silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium telluride, all helpful in infrared know-how, is defined. The publication highlights examples of ways glass composition could be replaced to augment a selected estate. insurance contains: Transmission of sunshine by means of solids actual houses of chalcogenide glasses Glass creation cautious characterization of glass homes traditional lens fabrication--spherical surfaces Molding of unconventional aspheric lenses with diffractive surfaces Glass tactics for different functions IR imaging bundles made of chalcogenide glass fibers creation of infrared crystalline fabrics at AMI improvement of an automated ellipsometer process at TI

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The only way to evaluate the usefulness of these glasses was to prepare them in high-quality batches up to 1 to 2 kg so that they could be characterized physically and optically in a more quantitative manner. 3 lists the glasses characterized and their individual results. Note the sulfur glasses are somewhat better physically than those based on Se and Te. However, they are not useful for the thermal window, the goal of the program. 9 is a photograph of a large cast Si-GeAs-Te glass plate. Also shown are glass prisms to be used to measure the infrared refractive index quantitatively as a function of wavelength.

We have already dealt with the electronegativity differences for bonds. The principal quantum number of the valence electrons corresponds to the row of the periodic table on which the element is located. The same treatment may be applied to chalcogenide glasses. However, most compositions will not be binary, only two elements. Most will contain three or more elements. So the average principal quantum numbers and average electronegativity numbers must be calculated based on composition percentages for each element.

Thus far, we have accounted for the Fresnel reflection losses only from transmission. Losses due to absorption must be measured and calculated from the expression T= (1 − R)2 e −αx 1 − R 2 e −2αx Tr a n s m i s s i o n o f L i g h t b y S o l i d s where T = transmission I/I0 R = reflectivity α = bulk absorption coefficient, cm–1 X = sample thickness, cm Optical designers desire index values to five numbers for imaging systems. How these values are obtained will be discussed in a later section.

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