Chance and Determinism in Avicenna and Averroes (Islamic by Belo, C.

By Belo, C.

This e-book addresses the difficulty of determinism in Avicenna and Averroes via an research in their perspectives on likelihood, subject and divine windfall. It units the talk opposed to the philosophical/historical history of Aristotelianism, Neoplatonism and Islamic theology.

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Extra info for Chance and Determinism in Avicenna and Averroes (Islamic Philosophy, Theology, and Science)

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In McGinnis, Scientific Methodologies in Medieval Islam, p. 318. 17 Avicenna, Al-Najàt, pp. 251–2. 30 chapter one of events taking place always or for the most part. Aristotle claims that it is found in events that occur rarely. 18 Thus chance is said simply of what occurs neither frequently nor constantly. 19 An example of an event which happens for the most part or regularly is rainfall in the winter. This measure by which events are labelled as casual or chance events, their infrequency, such as rain in the summer, does not presuppose a theory of strict necessary causality.

Of a piece of wood, half of which is cut for a mosque and the other half for a public lavatory, that half of it is fortunate (sa'ìd ) and half is unfortunate, this is metaphorical. 38 38 Avicenna, al-Samà' al-ˇabì'ì, p. 66. (Àl Yàsìn, p. 121). Avicenna adapts the example to the Muslim reader. The Arabic translation of Aristotle states that the stone of which the idol is made is only metaphorically fortunate inasmuch as it is revered, p. 129, see Aristotle, Physics, 197b9–11. 38 chapter one Therefore chance comprises that which happens spontaneously or coincidentally—as it has already been pointed out, the term ittifàq literally means coincidence.

This is because every single event in nature is determined by its causes. 15 The reader is 13 Avicenna, al-Samà' al-ˇabì'ì, p. 64. (Àl Yàsìn, p. 120). In this instance, the action is not a chance event because the will becomes its necessitating efficient cause. Whether the will acts autonomously or is determined by external factors is a different matter altogether. In passages on God’s determination, Avicenna suggests that everything falls under God’s determining power, including human will. This emerges clearly from his definition of qadar and qa∂à" in Risàla al-Qa∂à", original Arabic text in Lettre au Vizir Abù Sa'd, pp.

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