By Joseph J. Bozell (Eds.)
content material: Chemical and fabrics from renewable assets / Joseph J. Bozell --
Polyhydroxyalkanoates: the reply to sustainable polymer creation / Tillman U. Gerngross --
imaginative and prescient for renewable assets / James S. Mclaren --
Synthesis of đ-aminolevulinic acid / Luc Moens --
Levulinate esters from biomass wastes / Edwin S. Olson ... [et al.] --
Carbohydrate diacids: capability as advertisement chemical substances and hydrophobic polyamide precursors / D.E. Kiely --
Levoglucosenone: a chiral development block with a brand new viewpoint / Zbigniew J. Witczak --
New oligomers and polymers bearing furan moieties / Claire Coutterez ... [et al.] --
Furfural and levoglucosan creation from deciduous wooden and agricultural wasters / Janis Gravitis ... [et al.] --
Pretreatment tactics to extend pyrolytic yield of levoglucosan from herbaceous feedstocks / Robert C. Brown, Desmond Radlein, and Jan Piskorz --
3-Dehydroshikimic acid: a development block for chemical synthesis from renewable feedstocks / K.M. Draths ... [et al.] --
Synthesis and houses of polymers derived from substituted lactic acids / Mao Yin, Tara L. Simmons, and Gregory L. Baker --
built-in strategy for the construction of chemical substances from biologically derived succinic acid / Nhuan Nghiem ... [et al.] --
Use of version compounds to check the reactivity and cross-linking of average phenolics / Stephen S. Kelley ... [et al.] --
Thermoplastic polyesters from steam exploded wooden / Wolfgang G. Glasser and Rajesh ok. Jain.
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Extra resources for Chemicals and Materials from Renewable Resources
Soc. 1954, 1820. 15. ; Russell, C. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1953, 75, 4873. 16. Marei, Α. ; Raphael, R. A. J. Chem. Soc. 1958, 2624. 17. ; Rapp, K. Synthesis 1995, 303. 18. ; Ueki, H. S. Patent 5,380,935, 1995. 19. ; Matsushita, H. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1991, 55, 1687. 20. ; Matsushita, H. S. Patent 5,284,973, 1994 21. ; Duguid, A. ; Leeper, F. J. J. Chem. 1,1998, 89. 22. Aronovo, Ν. ; Makhova, N . ; Zavyalov, S. ; Volkenshtein, J. ; Kunitskaya, G. M . S. Patent 3,846,490, 1974. 23. Evans, D. ; Sidebottom, P.
And the New York Energy Research and Development Agency. I am also grateful to Dr. Joseph J. Bozell at NREL for the many stimulating discussions. References 1. Leonard, R. H. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1956, 48, 1331. 2. ; Okabayashi, M . Chem. Econ. Eng. Rev. 1975, 7, 25. 3. Fitzpatrick, S, F. S. Patent 5,608105, 1997. 4. ; Russell, C. ; Abramsky, T. J. Biol. Chem. 1955, 215, 613. 5. Leeper, F. J. Nat. Prod. Rep. 1989, 6, 171. 6. Rebeiz, C. ; Hopen, H. ; Wu, S. M . Enzyme Microb. Technol. 1984, 6, 390.
We found that the ratio was usually close to 3 : 1 (as measured by H-NMR) immediately after termination of the bromination reaction, but that it sometimes decreased to only 1 : 1 after the work-up. The work-up consisted of removing all traces of solvent, HBr and residual bromine under reduced pressure at room temperature (using a rotary evaporator). Since this decreased ratio represented a serious loss of the desired 5-bromo ester, we tried to modify the protocol such that the initial 3 : 1 ratio would be preserved throughout the work-up procedure.