By Alison Clarke-Stewart
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Additional info for Child Care in the Family. A Review of Research and Some Propositions for Policy
In general, parents of higher socioeconomic status are higher on all measures of adult-initiated interaction related to the child's need for companionship, affection, and intellectual stimulation. Their methods and strictness of control also differ from those of parents at lower socioeconomic levels; they are more likely to request, consult, explain, rather than coax, command, threaten, and punish. However, caution must be applied in making generalizations from these observed differences. As we have pointed out before, studies of social class account for very little of the statistical variance in parent-child relations, and they often confound 34 II.
Children's development is enhanced by maternal behavior that is both stimulating and accepting. ) PRESCHOOL: THREE TO srx YEARS 37 EFFECTS ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. A limited body of research suggests that children's language competence and usage in the preschool period continue to reflect characteristics of the verbal environment. Their language ability is related to the amount of adult speech to the child (talking and reading) but not to the total amount of speech in the environment. It is related to the acceptance, relevance, and informational content of this speech (answering questions, reading stories, teaching rhymes, labeling objects, and not giving negative commands).
As we have seen before, however, the mother's satisfaction with her work status may be more relevant than the fact that she does or does not work. During the early school years satisfaction seems particularly related to the child's social behavior. Mothers who work—and dislike it—are less involved with their children; their children while often independent and assertive, are also frequently hostile. Children whose mothers enjoy working (and who tend to be warmer and less strict) are related higher in self-worth and personal adjustment.