By Michaela Kreyenfeld, Dirk Konietzka
This e-book is released open entry lower than a CC by means of 4.0 license.
This open entry booklet presents an outline of childlessness all through Europe. It deals a suite of papers written via top demographers and sociologists that research contexts, reasons, and results of childlessness in international locations in the course of the region.The booklet positive factors facts from in all places Europe. It particularly highlights styles of childlessness in Germany, France, the uk, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland. an extra bankruptcy on childlessness within the usa places the ecu event in standpoint. The publication bargains readers such insights because the determinants of lifelong childlessness, no matter if governments can and may counteract expanding childlessness, how the phenomenon differs throughout social strata and the position financial uncertainties play. furthermore, the e-book additionally examines existence path dynamics and biographical styles, assisted replica in addition to the results of childlessness. Childlessness has been expanding speedily in so much eu nations in fresh many years. This e-book deals readers professional research into this factor from major specialists within the box of kin habit. From factors to outcomes, it explores the various points of childlessness all through Europe to provide a entire portrait of this significant demographic and sociological pattern.
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Additional info for Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences
In the CEE countries, childlessness first 36 T. Sobotka started to rise among the cohorts born in the late 1960s (Fig. 5). Because of these differences in the onset of the increase in childlessness, the east-west gap in childlessness levels was most pronounced among women born between 1950 and 1965, although the differences between countries were large (Fig. 6). For an illustration, consider regional differences observed among women born in 1968: the average level of childlessness in the CEE countries (10 %) is below the lowest childlessness level in other parts of Europe (12 % in Denmark), and is well below the average level across non-CEE countries (18 %).
These data also constitute the most accessible source of information on permanent childlessness. , the Polish census of 2002, asked only a selected sample of women about family and reproduction), and thus allow detailed cohort-by-cohort comparisons of childlessness. , Burkimsher and Zeman, Chap. 6, in this volume), including educational attainment (Brzozowska et al. 2016). Census data can, however, be affected by higher or lower mortality among childless women, giving a distorted picture of permanent childlessness among older women, especially if they experienced higher mortality during their reproductive ages or lived through wars and major upheavals.
An important source of uncertainty about future childlessness lies in the interplay between fertility postponement and the ability of couples and individuals to realise their childbearing plans later in life. The mean age at first birth among women has exceeded 30 in Italy, Spain, and Switzerland; and is approaching this boundary in many other European countries. The share of women who are still childless at ages 35–40, when infertility becomes an important limiting factor (Menken et al. 1986), has risen rapidly in much of Europe.