China: higher education reform by World Bank

By World Bank

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2 percent of domestic technology trade originated in universities and colleges (World Bank, 1995g). As world trade expands, China will face increasingly competitive pressure from lower wage economies (such as Vietnam and Bangladesh). The increasing integration of the world economy and the global acceleration of technological change would make the reliance on low skilled labor-intensive production a nonviable option for future development. For China to speed up its development and to raise her living standards in the 21st century, it is imperative that the manufacturing of medium-skilled products be mastered and a move toward production of high-technology goods and services be fostered.

When enrollment in all adult tertiary institutions is considered, it amounts to just over 4 percent of gross enrollment in higher education. This ratio is low in comparison not only with other fast growing East Asian countries [for example, 10 percent in Indonesia, 19 percent in Thailand, 20 percent in Hong Kong, 39 percent in Taiwan (China), and 51 percent in Republic of Korea], but also with India, which had a per capita GNP of $300 in 1993, lower than China's $490, and yet had an enrollment rate of 8 percent in higher education.

Meredith J. Dearborn worked on the desktop publication of the report. The study was carried out under the supervision of Vinay K. Bhargava and completed under the general direction of Joseph Goldberg. The Director is Nicholas C. Hope and the Lead Economist is Richard S. Newfarmer. 8 percent in real terms between 1978 and 1994. According to the Ninth Five-Year Plan (19952000), the Government's target for GDP in 2000 is to quadruple that in 1980, and that for GDP in 2010 is to double that in 2000.

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