Civilization before Greece and Rome by H. W. F. Saggs

By H. W. F. Saggs

For lots of centuries it used to be approved that civilization all started with the Greeks and Romans. over the last 200 years, in spite of the fact that, archaeological discoveries in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete, Syria, Anatolia, Iran, and the Indus Valley have printed that wealthy cultures existed in those areas a few thousand years sooner than the Greco-Roman period. during this attention-grabbing paintings, H.W.F Saggs offers a wide-ranging survey of the extra outstanding achievements of those societies, exhibiting how a lot the traditional peoples of the close to and center East have stimulated the styles of our day-by-day lives. Saggs discussesthe the discovery of writing, tracing it from the earliest pictograms (designed for account-keeping) to the Phoenician alphabet, the resource of the Greek and all eu alphabets. He investigates teh curricula, instructing equipment, and values of the colleges from which scribes graduated. studying the provisions of a few of the legislations codes, he illustrates the operation of overseas legislations and the overseas exchange that it made attainable. Saggs highlights the inventive ways in which those historic peoples used their average assets, describing the large works in stone created by means of the Egyptians, the improvement of know-how in bronze and iron, and the advent of helpful vegetation into areas outdoor their ordinary habitat. In chapters on arithmetic, astronomy, and drugs, he deals attention-grabbing factors approximately how glossy calculations of time derive from the traditional global, how the Egyptians practiced medical surgical procedure, and the way the Babylonians used algebra. The ebook concludes with a dialogue of old faith, exhibiting its evolution from the main primitive kinds towards monotheism.

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Both sites had for centuries been places of pilgrimage for adventurous European travellers. ' One or two of the travellers had brought home relics which included examples of a curious writing found on these sites and others in southwest Iran, composed of wedge-shaped signs. The East India Company, which until the Indian Mutiny in 1857 looked after all British concerns related to India, had since about 1725 had a British Resident to protect their interests in Mesopotamia, originally based at Basra, later at Baghdad.

But in the eighteenth century the Bible in its earliest parts was thought of simply as religious teaching about God's plan for man: it was to be believed as absolute truth in its own right, not treated as a source for a wider understanding of the development of ancient civilization. Advances in the knowledge of human development outside the religious area had to come by other channels. During the eighteenth century France and Great Britain were competing for control of India. By 1764 the British had finally won.

W. F. Saggs) 3 Step Pyramid at Saqqara (H. W. F. Saggs) 4 Transplanting a myrrh tree from Punt to Egypt (Detail from E. ) 8 Delivery of tribute from Nubia (N. M. Davies, The Tomb of Huy, viceroy of Nubia in the reign of Tut'ankhamun (1926), plate XXIII; courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society) 9 From the tomb of Kemsit: delivery of products from the owner's estate (E. 3000 BC; King Na'rmer conquers his enemies (Courtesy of the Egyptian Museum, Cairo) 13 Excavated site of Indus Valley city Lothal, showing evidence of town planning (Courtesy of Professor D.

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