By Ernst Van Den Boogaart, P. C. Emmer (auth.), P. C. Emmer (eds.)
I: Introduction.- 1. Colonialism and Migration: an Overview.- II: eu Indentured Migration to the recent World.- 2. The Absence of White agreement Labour in Spanish the United States through the Colonial Period.- three. Markets for Migrants: English Indentured Servitude and Emigration within the 17th and Eighteenth Centuries.- four. The Servant Migration to New Netherland, 1624–1664.- five. French Indentured Servants for the US, 1500–1800.- 6. The Migration of German Redemptioners to North the USA, 1720–1820.- III: Indentured Migration after Slavery.- 7. The Recruitment of African Indentured Labourers for ecu Colonies within the 19th Century.- eight. Plantation Society and Indentured Labour: the Jamaican Case, 1834–1865.- nine. The Meek Hindu: The Recruitment of Indian Labourers for carrier in a foreign country, 1870–1916.- 10. Engagees and Coolies on Réunion Island: Slavery’s mask and Freedom’s Constraints.- eleven. Colonialism and Indentured Labour Migration within the Western Pacific, 1840–1915.- IV: A comparability: Indentured Labour ahead of and After Slavery.- 12. Servants to Slaves to Servants: agreement Labour and ecu Expansion.- Notes at the participants.
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Additional resources for Colonialism and Migration; Indentured Labour Before and After Slavery
The interest of these market participants was added to that of the overseas planters who, in all periods, were willing to pay passage costs in return for a committed period of labour. Thus the widespread adoption of indenture contracts, formally registered or custom of country, was not linked simply to the intense demand for labour abroad, but rather to the conjunction of that demand with two other circumstances: (1) an English margin of migration that shifted to the overseas colonies as domestic employment options closed, and (2) an active set of agents and masters who recruited, indentured, transported, and sold servants overseas.
Few went alone, the crossing of the Ocean was not an individual adventure; even the conquerors were not solitary lions. Perhaps here we observe a difference between the Spanish and the British emigrants of a later century. Criados and criadas could make themselves useful; much work had to be done on board: the daily cooking, the bedding, washing and cleaning of clothes, the attendance of young children and of the sick, some secretarial work, and the men could be used as porters. The age of the criados varied between 8 and 61 years.
Through much of the 18th century then, only 20% of the migrants flowed to the Caribbean - a marked drop from the 59% of the 1630-1700 period. B. The Characteristics of the Migrants Assiduous work on the surviving indenture lists by Campbell, Galenson, Souden and Horn has developed a significant amount of detail about the character of the migrant group34. Though the use of indenture lists necessarily raises the question of randomness of sample and creates dilemmas in interpreting incomplete or missing entries, they remain a most significant historical resource 35 • The Walsh caution noted earlier remains a caution but until there is further evidence of a systematic difference between those appearing on English indenture lists and those arriving in the colonies without indenture, research based on the lists can be presumed to be the most accurate of that available.