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Additional resources for Communicative Competence Approaches to Language Proficiency Assessment: Research and Application
Deborah Tannen's (1979) work suggests that the term teaching skill needs to be reconsidered in light of the finding that perfect communication is an unrealistic image. In other words, an image of teaching as a dual process sociolinguistic skill raises the unanswered question of whether the incorporation of this meaning of skill into the Dunkin & Biddle illustrative model would involve an additional burden of demands on teachers. Consider the following dimensions of dual process sociolinguistic skill: (a) ability to probe for bits of evidence that signal miscommunication; (b) ability to hear and see metalinguistic signs, or contextualization cues which indicate how a speaker expects his words to be interpreted; (c) ability to observe and document how these cues may vary with age, communicative development experience, and an individual's linguistic repertoire.
Phi Delta Kappan, 58(1), 143-49. Feldman, C. , & Wertsch, J. V. 1976, Context dependent properties of teacher's speech. Youth and Society, 7. 227-58. , & Shultz, J. 1979, Social competence at home and at school. Theory into Practice, 18(4), 234-44. , & Ritchey, W. L. 1979, Issues in the assessment of social competence in children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 625-38. Garnica, O. K. 1979, The boys have the muscles and the girls have the sexy legs: Adult-child speech and the use of generic person labels.
31). e. lexical choices and particular use of paralinguistic features of speech) can fail to establish rapport, or distance, or whatever its user's intention, when used between speakers who are not accustomed to its use for that purpose has been shown by Tannen to occur not only for speakers of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds but among a half dozen friends who all spoke the same language during a Thanksgiving celebration at one friend's home. "In other words, each person used a unique mix of conversational devices which constituted individual style.