By Hugh Goddard
The connection among the Christian and Muslim worlds has been an extended and tortuous one. Over the process the centuries the stability of energy has swung in a pendulum movement - now and then the initiative turns out to have lain with the Muslim group, with the Christian international easily being pressured to react to advancements outdoors itself, whereas at different issues the other has been actual and Muslims have chanced on themselves having to reply to Christian demanding situations in several types. this day Christians and Muslims contain the world's greatest spiritual groups. even if they could co-exist relatively peacefully, there are occasions once they nonetheless have interaction in violent disagreement, reminiscent of within the fresh conflicts in Bosnia and the Sudan. This ebook investigates the background of the relationships among Christians and Muslims over the centuries, from their preliminary encounters within the Medieval interval whilst the Muslims have been the dominant workforce, via to the trendy interval while the stability of strength turns out to were reversed. This much-needed review of the Christian-Muslim come upon areas the emphasis at the context in which perceptions and attitudes have been labored out and offers a intensity of old perception to the complexities of present Christian-Muslim interactions on varied continents.
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Additional resources for History of Christian Muslim Relations (The New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys)
Ammad, and to practise Islam properly with respect to such things as prayer and almsgiving. An interesting statement then follows concerning Jews 30 the islamic impact and Christians: `If a Jew or a Christian becomes a Muslim he is a believer with his rights and obligations. He who holds fast to his religion, Jew or Christian, is not to be turned from it. He must pay the poll-tax . a sent, under the leadership of Kha Å lid ibn al-WalõÅd, to Najra Å n, probably in 631/10. This delegation was instructed to give a rather peremptory summons to the population, of whom some were Christian but not all, to accept Islam within three days or to be attacked.
John himself makes no mention of Bah Å at this point, but . õÅra Sahas, following Tor Andrae, suggests that this is an allusion, at least, to Bah Å as an agent of transmission to Muh . õÅra . ammad, and if Arianism was a Christian heresy it is easy enough to see how Islam might be interpreted in a similar way. Muh . ammad thus claimed, according to John, that a book was sent down to him from heaven, but the resulting claim to prophethood is rejected by John, who describes Islam as `a deceptive superstition of the Ishmaelites' and `the fore-runner of the Antichrist'.
It was only later, after the expansion of the Muslim community into North Africa and Spain, that Western Christians began to formulate their rather different interpretations of Islam, which we will look at below. But, as we have seen, the Eastern Christian world of the day was itself also divided, 36 the first age of christian±muslim interaction with the main difference being between those who accepted the definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and those who did not, and, with respect to Islam, the different judgements which began to emerge at this time reflect that split fairly clearly.