Reflections on the Revolution in Europe by Christopher Caldwell

By Christopher Caldwell

This provocative and unflinching research of Europe’s unforeseen demographic revolution makes a speciality of the more and more assertive Muslim populations shaping the continent’s future.

Europe’s part century of mass immigration has didn't produce an American melting pot and is now confronted with a significant challenge for which there's no effortless resolution. in keeping with broad reporting and providing trenchant research, Reflections at the Revolution in Europe is destined to develop into the vintage paintings on how Muslim immigration completely reshaped the West.

Christopher Caldwell has been reporting at the politics and tradition of Islam in Europe for greater than a decade. His deeply researched and insightful new e-book finds a paradox. for the reason that global warfare II, mass immigration has been made attainable through Europe’s enforcement of secularism, tolerance, and equality. but if immigrants arrive, they don't seem to be required to undertake these values. and they're disinclined to, seeing that they have already got values in their personal. Muslims dominate or approximately dominate vital eu towns, together with Amsterdam and Rotterdam, Strasbourg and Marseille, the Paris suburbs and East London. Islam has challenged the ecu lifestyle at each flip, turning into, in influence, an “adversary culture.”

The consequence? In Reflections at the Revolution in Europe, Caldwell finds the anger of natives and rookies alike. He describes visitor employee courses that a ways outlasted their monetary justifications, and asylum guidelines that experience served unlawful immigrants higher than refugees. He exposes the unusual ways that welfare states have interaction with 3rd international customs, the anti-Americanism that brings eu natives and Muslim rookies jointly, and the arguments over ladies and intercourse that force them aside. He considers the attraction of sharia, “resistance,” and jihad to a moment iteration that's extra alienated from Europe than the 1st, and addresses a difficulty of religion between local Europeans that leaves them with a vulnerable hand as they confront the claims of novices.

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30 North believes that enough progress has been made in the investigation of the process of growth and development to allow for the pinpointing of the causes of poor economic performance as well as the necessary remedies. Poor performance, North believes, is due to path-dependencies resulting from past institutional structure, reflecting a belief system that is difficult to change either because the needed changes that improve economic performance run counter to the belief system or these changes pose a threat to existing political or business leaders.

To create a large enough impetus for the economy to break out of the vicious circle, governments would have to undertake large-scale investments in a sufficiently wide spectrum of industries. Such investments would lead to an expansion of the supply of goods and services. Increased income would generate additional demand for an expanded supply of goods and services; thus a virtuous circle—increased employment and productivity, higher income, higher savings, higher investment, higher capital accumulation, and higher productivity—would be initiated.

Solow showed that relaxing these assumptions would avoid the knife-edge problem and would allow the economy to achieve a stable, steady equilibrium path of long-run growth. As the economy grows and capital intensity increases over time, the growth rate of the economy declines. Therefore, countries with higher capital-labor ratios would grow more slowly. 23 In 1957, Solow made a further contribution by decomposing the output-input relations to obtain the contribution of each element of the production process to the growth of output—the contributions of labor and capital, and what could not be attributed to these, the residual, was attributed to technology.

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